[3dem] "leopard skin" ice

Marin van Heel marin.vanheel at googlemail.com
Mon Jun 16 01:01:31 PDT 2014

Dear All.

I have taken this image a couple of months while flying to Frankfurt in 
a KLM Embraer 190 (built in Brazil).  But to get to the core of my 
contribution to the "leopard skin" discussion: I have always associated 
leopard skin ice as a turbulence effect in the vitreous ice layer 
similar to the turbulence effect that causes clouds to form certain 
patterns (see attached picture). We maybe should look into the 
meteorology literature to better understand what is happening to our 
"cool" vitreous-water samples under electron exposure!

My two cents,


On 20/11/2013 18:23, frankpolzer at physik.hu-berlin.de wrote:
> Hi again,
> Please find attached an example image of the ice I observed.
> Cheers,
> Frank
>> Dear all,
>> During the last weeks, I frequently observe what I believe is so-called
>> leopard skin ice in my vitrified samples (plunge frozen in ethane using
>> Mark IV Vitrobot).
>> What again is the reason for this type of ice and how can this be avoided?
>> Thanks for your help in advance,
>> Frank
>> Dr. Frank Polzer
>> TEM Group
>> Insitute of Physics
>> Humboldt Universität zu Berlin
>> Newtonstraße 15
>> 12489 - Berlin
>> Tel.: +49 30 2093-4995 (office)
>> Tel.: +49 30 2093-7829 (TEM)
>> Fax: +49 30 2093-7886
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     Prof Dr Ir Marin van Heel

     Professor of Cryo-EM Data Processing

     Leiden University
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     Skype:    Marin.van.Heel
     email:  marin.vanheel(A_T)gmail.com
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     Emeritus Professor of Structural Biology

     Imperial College London
     Faculty of Natural Sciences
     Biochemistry Building (Room 512)
     South Kensington Campus
     London SW7 2AZ,  UK
     email:  m.vanheel(A_T)ic.ac.uk

     Tel. UK:   +44(0)2075945316 //Mobile: +44(0)7941540625

     Visiting Professor at:

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     CNPEM/ABTLuS, Campinas, Brazil
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